The effects of ocean acidification on the marine biosphere have yet to be documented.  Laboratory experiments suggest beneficial effects for a few species, with potentially highly detrimental effects for a substantial number of species.  With medium confidence, Fischlin et al. (2007)  projected that future ocean acidification and climate change would impair a wide range of planktonic and shallow benthic marine organisms that use aragonite to make their shells or skeletons, such as corals and marine snails ( pteropods ), with significant impacts particularly in the Southern Ocean.
Later, in 1930, Paul Dirac proposed a model of the vacuum as an infinite sea of particles possessing negative energy, called the Dirac sea . This theory helped refine the predictions of his earlier formulated Dirac equation , and successfully predicted the existence of the positron , confirmed two years later. Werner Heisenberg 's uncertainty principle formulated in 1927, predict a fundamental limit within which instantaneous position and momentum , or energy and time can be measured. This has far reaching consequences on the "emptiness" of space between particles. In the late 20th century, so-called virtual particles that arise spontaneously from empty space were confirmed.
If a young man's low testosterone is a problem for a couple trying to get pregnant , gonadotropin injections may be an option in some cases. These are hormones that signal the body to produce more testosterone. This may increase the sperm count. Hedges also describes implantable testosterone pellets, a relatively new form of treatment in which several pellets are placed under the skin of the buttocks, where they release testosterone over the course of about three to four months. Injections and nasal gels may be other options for some men.