The heart and blood vessels comprise the two elements of the cardiovascular system that work together in providing nourishment and oxygen to the organs of the body. The activity of these two elements is also coordinated in the body's response to stress. Acute stress — stress that is momentary or short-term such as meeting deadlines, being stuck in traffic or suddenly slamming on the brakes to avoid an accident — causes an increase in heart rate and stronger contractions of the heart muscle, with the stress hormones — adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol — acting as messengers for these effects. In addition, the blood vessels that direct blood to the large muscles and the heart dilate, thereby increasing the amount of blood pumped to these parts of the body and elevating blood pressure. This is also known as the fight or flight response. Once the acute stress episode has passed, the body returns to its normal state.
The syndromes included here represent a variety of clinically relevant infections that can occur in the LTCF population. Surveillance should be performed for infections for which there are clear strategies that can be implemented for prevention and control of transmission ( Table 1 ). However, for completeness and consistency with the original surveillance definitions, 1 several infections that may occur because of underlying host factors rather than transmission within the facility have also been included in this document, so that both infection prevention programs and research studies have a standard set of criteria. Given the limited infection prevention and control resources that are currently available in most LTCFs, surveillance activities may need to target those infections in a facility that have the most potential for prevention. In addition, some infections are associated with a high likelihood of transmission and development of outbreaks (eg, norovirus, influenza, group A Streptococcus , acute viral hepatitis). For these infections, identification of even a single case in a LTCF should trigger a more intensive investigation. 6 , 7
I have been back in touch with the holistic vet, whom I like, but feel so desperate about this situation that I am casting the net broadly, looking for ideas on how to help my Lucy get over this terrible scratching. One thing that I wonder about is whether she may have a weak immune system because she was born by cesarian section. I know from the breeder that her milk was supplemented with goat milk when she was less than 8 weeks old. I don’t know how much mother’s milk she got, given that she was part of a litter of 11, and her dame may not have been able to feed the pups post surgery. I know that human babies can suffer longterm consequences regarding gut flora and general immunity when they are born by cesarean and not breast fed. Might dogs not have similar issues?