Saw palmetto extract may decrease the effectiveness of estrogen products by reducing estrogen levels in the body via its antiestrogenic effects.  It can interfere with the use of birth control pills that contain estrogen as an active ingredient. As a result, it is recommended that an additional form of birth control, such as a condom, be used to prevent pregnancy in patients taking birth control pills with saw palmetto extract. In addition, saw palmetto extract can also interfere with hormone replacement therapy by reducing the effectiveness of estrogen pills. The combination of saw palmetto extract with estrogen products should be used with caution. 
Naringenin's potential antibacterial and antifungal behaviour has been investigated. In 1987, it was reported that naringenin had no antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis .  This finding was not replicated in a 2000 study in which naringenin was shown to indeed have an antimicrobial effect on S. epidermidis , as well as Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis , Micrococcus luteus , and Escherichia coli .  Further research has added evidence for antimicrobial effects against Lactococcus lactis ,  lactobacillus acidophilus , Actinomyces naeslundii , Prevotella oralis , Prevotella melaninogencia , Porphyromonas gingivalis ,  as well as yeasts such as Candida albicans , Candida tropicalis , and Candida krusei .  There is also evidence of antibacterial effects on H. pylori , though naringenin has not been shown to have any inhibition on urease activity of the microbe.