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Isobutyl carbinol can be synthesized from isobutanol by conversion into isovaleraldehyde, which is subsequently reduced to isobutyl carbinol by means of sodium amalgam . It is a colourless liquid of density g/cm³ (0 °C), boiling at  °C, slightly soluble in water, and easily dissolved in organic solvents. It has a characteristic strong smell and a sharp burning taste. Amyl alcohol has an oral LD50 of 200 mg/kg in mice, [4] suggesting that it is significantly more toxic than ethanol. On passing the vapour through a red-hot tube, it decomposes into acetylene , ethylene , propylene , and other compounds. It is oxidized by chromic acid to isovaleraldehyde , and it forms addition compounds crystals with calcium chloride and tin(IV) chloride . [3]

Nonylphenol has also been shown to affect cytokine signaling molecule secretions in the human placenta. In vitro cell cultures of human placenta during the first trimester were treated with nonylphenol, which increased the secretion of cytokines including interferon gamma , interleukin 4 , and interleukin 10 , and reduced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha . This unbalanced cytokine profile at this part of pregnancy has been documented to result in implantation failure, pregnancy loss, and other complications [24]

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