Another approach is to actually break the cipher through cryptanalysis ; finding a weakness in the cipher that can be exploited with a complexity less than brute force. The challenge of successfully attacking a cipher is easier of course if the cipher itself is flawed in the first place. There have always been suspicions that interference from the National Security Agency weakened the Data Encryption Standard algorithm , and following revelations from former NSA analyst and contractor Edward Snowden, many believe they have attempted to weaken encryption products and subvert cryptography standards.
Management is often included as a factor of production along with? machines, materials, and money . According to the management guru Peter Drucker (1909-2005), the basic task of management includes both marketing and innovation . Practice of modern management originates from the 16th century study of low-efficiency and failures of certain enterprises, conducted by the English statesman Sir Thomas More (1478-1535). Management consists of the interlocking functions of creating corporate policy and organizing , planning , controlling, and directing an organization's resources in order to achieve the objectives of that policy .